Karl Marx lived in 1818-1883 and is famous not as a philosopher, but as a great revolutionary. His works, in the 20th century, inspired many alongside the foundation of various communist regimes. Karl’s profound and distinct influence in creation and modeling of our modern world is the motivating factor for writing about him. Accomplished as a philosopher, Karl turned away from the field in his mid-twenties and focused on politics and economics. Nevertheless, adding to his openly philosophical work, Karl’s later writings are rich in content of the contemporary philosophical arguments, specifically in the historical philosophy, social sciences, as well as in political and moral philosophy. Marx’s work was associated with capitalism and communism, whereby the former would be replaced by the latter. He was a renowned writer whereby most of his writings were either published in his lifetime or after his death. What crosses my mind is how he came to that conclusion and why he thought that would ultimately come to fulfillment.
Marx joined the Young Hegelian Movement whose members included David Friedrich Strauss and Bruno Bauer. The group made a radical Christianity critique, and in fact, the liberal antagonism of the Prussian autocracy. As a Ph.D. graduate, from the University of Berlin, Marx was shocked to find out that there existed no real prospects of getting an academic job. He turned to journalism, becoming Cologne’s editor in October 1842. In 1843, he arrived in Paris where he made contacts with different groups of French socialists and German Radical Hegelians. Here he became a communist, settling down his views in the “Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts” in 1844. The manuscript was unpublished till the 1930s. Here, Marx explained the humanist formation of communism, subjective to Ludwig Feuerbach’s philosophy based on the difference between a free communist society and the isolated nature of work under capitalism.
In 1844, Max was expelled from Paris then left for Brussels till 1847. Marx wrote “The German Ideology” alongside “The Poverty of Philosophy”, a polemic, whose basis was against P.J. Proudhon’s idealistic socialism. In 1848, he went back to Paris, during the ongoing revolution, and to Germany. He later became a member of the “Communist League”, a society of the German émigré workers based in London and Engels and Marx were the main theoreticians. “The Communist Manifesto” was produced in 1848 in the wake of European revolutions. The paper proposed a radical independent line against the Prussian dictatorship. Marx had fully devoted his entire resources to its publication because the Communist League was then virtually disbanded. Karl’s paper was suppressed making him seek refuge in London, in 1849, when he began having the “endless, wakeful night of exile”. This was to last at the end of his life.
Settling in London, Karl was positive about the proximity of an emergent European revolutionary outbreak. He became a member of the Communist League, writing two very long pamphlets during the 1848 France revolution as well as its aftermath, “The 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte” and “The Class Struggles in France”. Soon, he was convinced that any new revolution would only be possible following a new crisis. He, therefore, committed himself to studying political economy so as to determine the conditions and causes of this crisis. In the early 1850s, Marx’s family lived in abject poverty. He had four children with two on waiting. Of all of them, only three children survived. His main source of income at that time was Engels who struggled to steadily increase the revenue from the family business enterprise in Manchester. By 1857, Marx had produced a large 800 page manuscript on landed property, capital, the state, wage labor, world market, and foreign trade. Most of them were not published immediately.
In the last decade of his inspiring life, Karl’s health declined such that he was powerless of sustained effort which had characterized his long life. Marx managed to make substantial comments on the contemporary politics, specifically in Russia and Germany. In Germany, he criticized in the “Critique of the Gotha Program”, the inclination of his followers compromising with the state LaSalle socialism, in favor of a single united socialist party. In the correspondence between Vera Zasulich, Karl contemplated the likelihood of Russia’s evading the capitalist development stage and forming communism based on a common land ownership typical of the village. Marx’s health never improved as he sought recuperation in Europe and Algeria without success. His eldest daughter death together with that of his wife darkened the latter years of his life.
Karl Marx’s wisdom, zeal, and commitment to the philosophy, economy, and politics made him think the unimaginable – all that never crossed laymen’s minds. His discovery of the law of human history development, hidden by a fertile ideology was of huge impact to our contemporary world, a man who left a legacy. He was the most calumniated and best-hated man of his generation. The governments both Republican and absolutist, expelled him from their territories, in his bid to fight towards the liberation of the present proletariat. Karl Marx’s life is to be admired and imitated.